What is name server (DNS) and its functionality over the Internet?

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Network computer users generally prefers to use domain names instead of IP addresses. However, computers use 32-bit IP addresses to communicate with other computers. To ensure successful internetwork communication between the programs and users, we need a fast and reliable method of translating between host names to IP addresses and vice versa. For this reason, Network designers developed a name server software. A name server is a program that maps domain names into IP addresses and IP addresses into domain names.

The principal namespaces are the domain name hierarchy and the Internet Protocol address system. The DNS maintains the domain name space and provides translation services between these two namespaces. Internet name servers implement the DNS. A DNS name server is a server which stores the DNS records. DNS records are A, NS and MX records. DNS is a distributed database system. The DNS distributes specific address details among various name servers. However, by talking to each other (server to server), name servers can resolve any address on the Internet.

Conceptually, the root server knows which name server can resolve names for each top level domain. The second level servers can identify the correct name server for each sub-domain. DNS uses the client/server paradigm. The name resolver is a client software which is used to ask a name server to resolve a DNS query. A resolver contacts the root server with a request to translate a name into an IP address. The root server, in turn, hands the resolver’s request to the appropriate second-level name server, which then passes the request down the hierarchical tree. Evenly, the resolver’s query reaches a name server that can do the translation. At that point, the name server returns, to the requesting resolver, the IP address that corresponds to the computer’s name in the resolver’s request.

When we register a domain name with a web hosting company, they provide and setup atleast one primary and secondary name servers for our purchased domain. Every web hosting company will have it’s own domain name registrars accredition from ICANN or tie’s up with other domain name registrars who can register domain name on behalf of a end user. After completion of domain name registration process, users of this domain name can access from browser. As soon as user types registered domain name in address bar of a browser, resolver client software in host computer contacts domain’s name servers and there by location of the web pages. The home page will open in user’s browser if there are files exists in a web hosting folder of the requested domain.

The top hierarchy of the Internet Domain Name Server is served by the root name servers maintained by delegation by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).

You can find the name servers of any domain name which is already register with domain registrar from the url www.who.is. This website gives the information about domain name registrar, primary and secondary name servers, address and email address of the person registered this domain, recent cache of the home page..etc. This information is not available for the domain names who opted specially private with their registrar.

You can check the name servers of this blog address www.punarvasi.com from who.is. The result is as follows…. I have listed little information about my domain. You can check more information about any domain from the provided link.

Domain Name www.punarvasi.com
Registrar Melbourne IT, Ltd. D/B/A Internet Names World Wide
Name Servers ns1.lunarbreeze.com and ns2.lunarbreeze.com
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